Above: Habitus of Pythochandra singaporensis (type) (female). Scale bar=2mm.
Below: Pythochandra singaporensis (Baker) (A–C after Baker, 1923). A, head and thorax, dorsal view. B, head and thorax, lateral view. C, face (markings omitted). D, style, connective, aedeagus and dorsal connective, lateral view. E, style, connective, aedeagus and dorsal connective, ventral view. F, male genital capsule and anal tube, lateral view. G, aedeagus and dorsal connective, viewed in direction of arrow in (D). H, valve and subgenital plates, ventral view.

ABSTRACT. — Baker’s (1915) species described in the Oriental leafhopper genus Pythamus Melichar are revised. One species, Pythamus melichari Baker 1915, is placed in a new genus, Pythochandra Wei & Webb, gen. n.. The four varieties of P. melichari described by Baker (1915, 1923) (borneensis, bilobatus, decoratus and singaporensis) are elevated to species level and placed in the new genus stat. n., comb. n.. All species are briefly described and a key is provided for their separation. Two other species, Pythamus productus Baker and P. decoratus Baker, known only from females, are retained in Pythamus pending further studies.

Cong Wei, Michael D. Webb, & Yalin Zhang, 2014. Identity of Baker’s species described in the Oriental leafhopper genus Pythamus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) with description of a new genus. Zootaxa, 3795 (3): 289–300

Left: Dried shell of example of Nassarius biendongensis (ZRC.MOL.5717) from Sarimbun, with apertural views on the left and dorsal views on the right: SH 11.5 × SW 6.6 mm. Photo by: Tan Siong Kiat
Right: The latest example of the nudibranch Tambja sagamiana in Singapore, seen off Pulau Hantu on 23 March 2014. Photo by: Toh Chay Hoon
New records of molluscs in Singapore and more in this batch of Singapore Biodiversity Records.
Cool fact: The snail (Nassarius biendongensis) was first collected and deposited in the museum’s Zoological Reference Collection from the Sarimbun area in 1999, but only identified recently as a new record to Singapore when the species was described in 2003!
Tan & Low wrote: “Although the shells… were collected more than a decade ago, the specimens have remained unidentified until relevant references became available recently.”
89. New record of White-faced Pipefish in Singapore. [pdf]
90. Crested Honey Buzzard mobbed by House Crow. [pdf]
91. First record of Nassarius biendongensis from Singapore. [pdf]
92. New record of the nudibranch Tambja sagamiana in Singapore. [pdf]
93. The Snake Pennywort Geophila repens at Mount Faber Park. [pdf]
Source: Singapore Biodiversity Records

Left: Dried shell of example of Nassarius biendongensis (ZRC.MOL.5717) from Sarimbun, with apertural views on the left and dorsal views on the right: SH 11.5 × SW 6.6 mm. Photo by: Tan Siong Kiat
Right: The latest example of the nudibranch Tambja sagamiana in Singapore, seen off Pulau Hantu on 23 March 2014. Photo by: Toh Chay Hoon

New records of molluscs in Singapore and more in this batch of Singapore Biodiversity Records.

Cool fact: The snail (Nassarius biendongensis) was first collected and deposited in the museum’s Zoological Reference Collection from the Sarimbun area in 1999, but only identified recently as a new record to Singapore when the species was described in 2003!

Tan & Low wrote: “Although the shells… were collected more than a decade ago, the specimens have remained unidentified until relevant references became available recently.”

89. New record of White-faced Pipefish in Singapore. [pdf]
90. Crested Honey Buzzard mobbed by House Crow. [pdf]
91. First record of Nassarius biendongensis from Singapore. [pdf]
92. New record of the nudibranch Tambja sagamiana in Singapore. [pdf]
93. The Snake Pennywort Geophila repens at Mount Faber Park. [pdf]

Source: Singapore Biodiversity Records

Habitus images of Pilophorus typicus living individuals. F. Male (00380192). G. Same, 5th instar immature (from Sakaerat Environmental Research Station (SERS)).
ABSTRACT. — Eleven species of the ant-mimetic plant bug genus Pilophorus Hahn from Thailand are documented, with photographic images of live individuals. Four new species with conventional, moderate antlike shape, Pilophorus meteorus, P. saovapruki, P. subparallelus and P. suwimonae, are described. Two known Thai species, P. alstoni Schuh and P. typicus (Distant), are further reported and diagnosed. Biological information including host association is provided for P. alstoni, P. meteorus, P. saovapruki and P. typicus. A checklist of all currently known species of Pilophorus in Thailand and a key to known Thai species are included. Pilophorus typicus is reported from Singapore for the first time.
Tomohide Yasunaga, Kazutaka Yamada & Taksin Artchawakom, 2014. Additional records and descriptions of the ant-mimetic plant bug genus Pilophorus from Thailand (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Miridae: Phylinae: Pilophorini). Zootaxa, 3795 (1): 001–015

Habitus images of Pilophorus typicus living individuals. F. Male (00380192). G. Same, 5th instar immature (from Sakaerat Environmental Research Station (SERS)).

ABSTRACT. — Eleven species of the ant-mimetic plant bug genus Pilophorus Hahn from Thailand are documented, with photographic images of live individuals. Four new species with conventional, moderate antlike shape, Pilophorus meteorus, P. saovapruki, P. subparallelus and P. suwimonae, are described. Two known Thai species, P. alstoni Schuh and P. typicus (Distant), are further reported and diagnosed. Biological information including host association is provided for P. alstoni, P. meteorus, P. saovapruki and P. typicus. A checklist of all currently known species of Pilophorus in Thailand and a key to known Thai species are included. Pilophorus typicus is reported from Singapore for the first time.

Tomohide Yasunaga, Kazutaka Yamada & Taksin Artchawakom, 2014. Additional records and descriptions of the ant-mimetic plant bug genus Pilophorus from Thailand (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Miridae: Phylinae: Pilophorini). Zootaxa, 3795 (1): 001–015

Fig. 1. Malayan Colugo (Galeopterus variegatus) on a Betel Nut Palm (Areca catechu).
Fig. 2. Frontal view of the colugo’s head.
A very vertebrate tranche of Singapore Biodiversity Records is now up.
The Malayan Colugo featured here is a nocturnal forest mammal that can glide from tree to tree by extending its limbs and tail which are connected by flaps of skin like the wings of an aeroplane. This record shows that it does venture into parkland adjacent to forest.
84. Malayan Forest Softshell Turtle at Sime forest. [pdf]
85. Spotted Dove fledglings’ boisterous feeding behaviour. [pdf]
86. Malayan Colugo at Mandai Lake Road. [pdf]
87. A juvenile Sunbeam Snake. [pdf]
88. Green Iguana at Kovan. [pdf]
Source: Singapore Biodiversity Records

Fig. 1. Malayan Colugo (Galeopterus variegatus) on a Betel Nut Palm (Areca catechu).
Fig. 2. Frontal view of the colugo’s head.

A very vertebrate tranche of Singapore Biodiversity Records is now up.

The Malayan Colugo featured here is a nocturnal forest mammal that can glide from tree to tree by extending its limbs and tail which are connected by flaps of skin like the wings of an aeroplane. This record shows that it does venture into parkland adjacent to forest.

84. Malayan Forest Softshell Turtle at Sime forest. [pdf]
85. Spotted Dove fledglings’ boisterous feeding behaviour. [pdf]
86. Malayan Colugo at Mandai Lake Road. [pdf]
87. A juvenile Sunbeam Snake. [pdf]
88. Green Iguana at Kovan. [pdf]

Source: Singapore Biodiversity Records

Machine Gun Shrimp (Coralliocaris graminea)

This little green shrimp is sometimes seen living among branching corals such as Acropora and Montipora. Growing only up to 1 centimetre in length, it is usually well hidden and hard to spot and photograph.

It has a pair of huge flattened pincers that can be larger than its body. Like the snapping shrimps (F. Alpheidae), the pincer has an enlarged tooth and a special catch. When the catch is released, the tooth makes a loud snapping sound. Unlike the snapping shrimps, which only have one such ‘snapping’ pincer, the Machine Gun Shrimp has two such pincers, hence its common name. But the ‘snaps’ of the snapping shrimps are still more powerful.

The shrimps probably use their snapping pincers to protect their home from animals that might damage the coral. They are not believed to eat their host and simply use the coral as shelter. A pair is usually seen in a single coral colony.

This shrimp has been seen on living reefs at Tanah Merah, Cyrene, Sentosa, and the Southern Islands.

Source: Wild Fact Sheets

Images: 1 by Arthur Anker; 2, 3 by James Koh; 4 by ; 5 by Ria Qorina Lubis; 6, 7 by Loh Kok Sheng;

Sultan Shoal

Sultan Shoal is a small island of about 0.6 hectares located in the southwest of Singapore — about 5.46 km away from the mainland. It is located between Jurong Island and Tuas reclaimed land.

Sultan Shoal consists mostly of built-up man-made structures, with a lighthouse and a swimming lagoon with concrete sides and a natural sandy bottom. On the concrete and rocky substrates, visitors can find a variety of molluscs attached, like Nerite Snails (F. Neritidae) and Onch Slugs (Onchidium sp.). Corals can also be seen growing on the seawall. Lying underneath the rocks are many Little African Sea Cucumbers (Afrocucumis africana). Larger species of sea cucumbers can also be found on the sandy shores along with several species of worms, crabs, anemones, corals, and sea fans.

Due to concerns that the construction of a container terminal at Tuas would affect the corals at Sultan Shoal, efforts to relocate and transplant some of the corals to reefs elsewhere were recently carried out.

Source: The Digital Nature Archive of Singapore

Images: 1 by Ria Tan; 2, 3, 4 by Loh Kok Sheng; 5 by Debby Ng;

Photos of snakes on Saint John’s Island by Chim Chee Kong.
Snakes galore in this batch of Singapore Biodiversity Records. Also records of a bat, freshwater crab and sponge.
78. New record of the Horsfield’s Large-footed Myotis in Singapore. [pdf]
79. Striped Keelback on Pulau Ubin.[pdf]
80. Freshwater crab Parathelphusa maculata at Holland Woods.[pdf]
81. Blue Malayan Coral Snake biting Orange-bellied Ringneck.[pdf]
82. Freshwater sponge at Marina Bay South Gardens.[pdf]
83. Snakes of Saint John’s Island.[pdf]
Source: Singapore Biodiversity Records

Photos of snakes on Saint John’s Island by Chim Chee Kong.

Snakes galore in this batch of Singapore Biodiversity Records. Also records of a bat, freshwater crab and sponge.

78. New record of the Horsfield’s Large-footed Myotis in Singapore. [pdf]
79. Striped Keelback on Pulau Ubin.[pdf]
80. Freshwater crab Parathelphusa maculata at Holland Woods.[pdf]
81. Blue Malayan Coral Snake biting Orange-bellied Ringneck.[pdf]
82. Freshwater sponge at Marina Bay South Gardens.[pdf]
83. Snakes of Saint John’s Island.[pdf]

Source: Singapore Biodiversity Records

Ventral view of the Javan pipistrelle (Pipistrellus javanicus) (ZRC 4.9490). Photograph by Kelvin K. P. Lim.
NUS undergrad and Toddycat, Sean Yap, salvaged a dead bat from Paya Lebar MRT station, which turned out to be an uncommon species record published in the latest tranche of Singapore Biodiversity Records.
Read more about it and many other interesting records here:
70. Congregation of Oriental River Gobies at Upper Seletar Reservoir. [pdf]
71. Spawn of the Saddleback Anemonefish. [pdf]
72. Banded Malaysian Coral Snake at Kent Ridge. [pdf]
73. Colour forms of the Midas Cichlid. [pdf]
74. Javan Pipistrelle at Paya Lebar. [pdf]
75. A hive of Black Dwarf Honeybees at Kent Ridge campus. [pdf]
76. New record of Kuiter’s Dragonet from Singapore. [pdf]
77. Masked Rough-sided Frog at Holland Woods. [pdf]

Ventral view of the Javan pipistrelle (Pipistrellus javanicus) (ZRC 4.9490). Photograph by Kelvin K. P. Lim.

NUS undergrad and Toddycat, Sean Yap, salvaged a dead bat from Paya Lebar MRT station, which turned out to be an uncommon species record published in the latest tranche of Singapore Biodiversity Records.

Read more about it and many other interesting records here:

70. Congregation of Oriental River Gobies at Upper Seletar Reservoir. [pdf]
71. Spawn of the Saddleback Anemonefish. [pdf]
72. Banded Malaysian Coral Snake at Kent Ridge. [pdf]
73. Colour forms of the Midas Cichlid. [pdf]
74. Javan Pipistrelle at Paya Lebar. [pdf]
75. A hive of Black Dwarf Honeybees at Kent Ridge campus. [pdf]
76. New record of Kuiter’s Dragonet from Singapore. [pdf]
77. Masked Rough-sided Frog at Holland Woods. [pdf]

Reef Bristleworm (Eurythoe sp.)

This large active bristleworm is often encountered on many of our shores, inhabiting coral rubble near living reefs and seagrasses. It is especially active at night, foraging busily among the rubble. During the day, the worms are often hidden under stones.

The Reef Bristleworm has a flat body which is broad and tapered at both ends. Along the body are two rows of parapodia, paired, lateral appendages extending from the body segments. Each parapodium is biramous, consisting of the upper division called the notopodium and a ventral division called the neuropodium. The setae or bristles on the underside are hooked and allow the worm to cling to the substrate.

The dorsal setae are composed of calcium carbonate and are brittle and hollow. Contact causes these setae to break off readily and the fragments will lodge in the skin, releasing a toxin known as complanine that will cause pain and inflammation. As a result, the Reef Bristleworm and its relatives are commonly known as Fireworms.

This worm is an omnivorous scavenger. It lacks jaws and teeth, but possesses eversible mouthparts that function like a suction pump. Larger pieces of food are ingested by the muscular pharynx, which can increase in size to handle different sizes of food. Smaller food particles are plucked from the water by the everted pharynx.

Similar-looking polychaete worms from all over the world have been referred to a single species, Eurythoe complanata. There is some debate over whether this is one widespread species or a complex of species that look similar.

Sources: Wild Fact Sheets, A Guide to Singapore Polychaetes

Images: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 by Ria Tan; 9 by James Koh;

Coleusia huilianae n. sp., paratype male (carapace length 37.2 mm, carapace width 33.3) (ZRC 2000.0094). Dorsal view of carapace, colours in life.
ABSTRACT. — A new species of leucosiid crab of the genus Coleusia Galil, 2006, is described from South and Southeast Asia. Coleusia huilianae n. sp. is distinguished from the superficially similar C. urania (Herbst, 1801) in the shape of the apical process of the first male gonopod which is digitate and curved laterally in the former (beak-like and curved interiorly in the latter); possessing smaller and sparser granulation on the posterior and lower margin of the cheliped and ambulatory meri; and the granulation is entirely missing from the lower external surface of the palm.
Promdam Rueangrit, Jaruwat Nabhitabhata & Bella S. Galil, 2014. A new species of Coleusia Galil, 2006 (Decapoda: Brachyura: Leucosiidae) from southern Asia. Zootaxa, 3786 (2): 135–140

Coleusia huilianae n. sp., paratype male (carapace length 37.2 mm, carapace width 33.3) (ZRC 2000.0094). Dorsal view of carapace, colours in life.

ABSTRACT. — A new species of leucosiid crab of the genus Coleusia Galil, 2006, is described from South and Southeast Asia. Coleusia huilianae n. sp. is distinguished from the superficially similar C. urania (Herbst, 1801) in the shape of the apical process of the first male gonopod which is digitate and curved laterally in the former (beak-like and curved interiorly in the latter); possessing smaller and sparser granulation on the posterior and lower margin of the cheliped and ambulatory meri; and the granulation is entirely missing from the lower external surface of the palm.

Promdam Rueangrit, Jaruwat Nabhitabhata & Bella S. Galil, 2014. A new species of Coleusia Galil, 2006 (Decapoda: Brachyura: Leucosiidae) from southern Asia. Zootaxa, 3786 (2): 135–140